Writing And Format Of Reports

Writing and format of reports

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Many agencies recognize two types of report: reports intended for internal use only, and those that
will be distributed externally, and entered in databases such as the Transportation Research
Information Services (TRIS). In the past, external reports were often high quality publications that
included typeset text and professionally drawn graphics. The availability of desktop publishing
software has largely blurred the distinction between reports on the basis of production standards

However, internal reports still tend to be less formal, and of a lower standard, than reports prepared
for external distribution

This appendix complements the contents of Chapter Five by providing guidance relating to the
writing of reports, particularly those for external publication or distribution. Most of the
recommendations for format are taken from instructions prepared by the Transportation Research
Board. In situations where the publisher, be it the research agency, a technical society, or a
commercial publisher, has specific rules for style and format, these will obviously take precedence

The appendix also describes types of figures used in reports, and gives several examples

Process of Writing
The process of writing consists of two steps:
1. Have something to say
2. Say it clearly and concisely

In many ways, reporting the results of research is much easier than creative writing, where the
biggest challenge is often to find a suitable topic. By the time a research report is written, the
“have something to say” criterion should be easy to satisfy. “Having something to say” does not
mean that the entire content of the report is in the author’s head. It means that the author has
information to convey, and a reasonably firm idea of the scope of the report

It is difficult to organize one’s thoughts without first developing an outline. The outline should
consist of a series of headings and subheadings. The initial outline can be quite brief, though the
larger the report, the more important it is to identify the number, and the subject matter, of the
chapters and appendices as early in the writing process as possible. This allows for the correct
cross-referencing between chapters as the report is written, because they are easily missed when
Volume I: Appendix C - 1
the report is edited. Many writers find it useful to annotate the outline with hand-written comments
identifying sources of information, adding topics, considering which topics could be combined or
eliminated, and rearranging the order in which topics are to be presented. When the outline is
embellished by so many notes, arrows, deletions and reminders that it becomes confusing, a
clean, typed version is produced, and the process begins again. It is important to regard the outline
as a “living” document that is subject to continuous improvement as ideas develop and new sources
of information emerge

Writing habits are intensely personal. For many people, a location free from interruption is
essential for getting one’s writing done. A suggestion for avoiding “writer’s block” (that frustrating
feeling of staring at a blank page, or empty screen, and being unable to find the right words, or any
words) is to remember that articles and reports do not have to be written by starting at page one

Begin with the sections that are the easiest, or of the greatest interest. For technical reports, this
may involve writing the methodology and results, before writing the discussion and introduction. For
articles, one approach is to prepare complete paragraphs of information likely to be included in the
finished document. Paragraphs on similar topics can then be collected, and rearrange or
eliminated without affecting the contents. This technique is useful for coping with an overwhelming
number of facts and ideas, and for organizing the text

The key is to start writing something as soon as possible. It is much easier to revise a draft, no
matter how rough, than to create it. It has been suggested (19) that the first draft be written without
regard for grammar and spelling, because stopping to find the correct word or sentence structure
interferes with the creative writing process. It is argued that the processes of writing and revision
are entirely different, and utilize skills that are mutually exclusive. Revision should follow some
time after writing, when the author can be objective, and reflect on the organization and content in a
critical manner. In writing the first draft, gaps will inevitably be identified and time will be needed to
locate the required information. For example, once a draft of the methodology and results has been
prepared, it will be clear whether more photographs must be taken or whether the assistance of
others is needed to construct figures or to format tables

Writers should expect to prepare at least two or three drafts to incorporate changes they feel are
necessary, and to reflect the comments of others. This requires that the first draft be written well in
advance of the publication deadline. Even where there is no formal requirement for review of draft
reports, by supervisors, peers, management or sponsors for example, it is a good idea to ask a
colleague to review an early draft. There is no better test of whether the document is
understandable, and suitable for the intended audience. Where assistance with editing is available,
it is a good idea to give a copy of the document to the editor before completing the final draft,
because this can smooth the production process

In practice, many reports or papers are written just before the deadline - or even a few days later!
This is probably because most people do not enjoy writing, and therefore procrastinate. Others find
that they write most effectively if they work extended hours in response to an impending deadline

“It focuses the mind” is the usual explanation for such behaviour. One should be guided by one’s
work habits, and do whatever works best in the circumstances. However, even a last-minute blitz
demands careful planning to ensure that reference articles and illustrations are available. Do not
expect that copies of obscure journal articles and needed photographs will appear miraculously at
midnight before a 9:00 a.m. deadline!
Volume I: Appendix C - 2
Writing Style
The purpose of technical writing is to convey information accurately, whereas the main purpose of
creative writing is to entertain. As a result, the language of technical writing tends to be utilitarian,
and creativity is sacrificed for clarity, precision and organization. This does not mean that spelling,
grammar and sentence construction can be compromised; only that there is less use of imagery
and figures of speech. There are some technical writers, who can incorporate creative expression
in their articles, but such writers are rare, and, in the early stages of one’s career, it is better to
concentrate one’s efforts on communicating concisely, clearly and accurately

Conciseness means expressing an idea or conveying information in the least number of words

Consequently, the words must be chosen carefully, avoiding jargon, circumlocutions and rambling
sentences. Comments or ideas should not be introduced as a matter of interest; they must be
essential to the content. Concise writing is easier and quicker to read, and more readily
understood. Clarity means that the writing is free from ambiguity and that the meaning is the same
to all readers. Accuracy means that the writing is free from errors. This is vital in reporting the
results of research because readers rely on the information presented to be correct. Errors,
whether experimental or the result of poor writing, reflect badly on the author’s reputation

A fundamental step before beginning any writing is to define the intended audience. In the case of
articles in commercial publications, or the journals of technical societies, it is relatively easy to
identify the audience because the publisher knows the subscribers and members. In the case of
one-of-a-kind documents, such as this manual, the author must define the intended audience. This
is important because the educational level of the audience determines the level of writing, in terms
of vocabulary and sentence structure. The experience level of the audience determines how much
background information must be provided to make the document understandable

Write in everyday language, but avoid the colloquialisms and poor sentence structure that are
common in everyday speech. Remember that speech is transient; the words cannot be inspected
for very long. Often, the meaning of speech defies rational analysis because we begin to talk before
we know exactly what we are going to say, and often, we do not complete our sentences. On the
other hand, writing is a technique for rigorous thinking and a process for organizing our thoughts

Writing freezes our thoughts in a permanent record

Technical and scientific writing can be made much easier to read and understand through good
organization of the report or article. The order in which topics should be presented depends upon
the nature of the material. The sequence must be logical and, as a general rule, proceed from the
general to the specific. This means that details should not be described before the big picture has
been presented. Other sequences that may be applicable are chronological, problem to solution, or
laboratory to field. When describing equipment, the sequence may be determined by the
juxtaposition of components (e.g. left to right or top to bottom), or by the order of operation

Providing transitions and connecting statements enhance comprehension so that the ideas and
information flow smoothly. Difficult concepts should be illustrated by figures or examples. A
common mistake is to overestimate the knowledge of the audience. Never be afraid to set the
scene, offer alternative explanations for difficult points (e.g. “in other words.....”), and explain the
significance of procedures and findings

Technical writing should not project the author’s personality. It must be objective, and free from
personal beliefs and opinions. The word “I” should not be used. It is customary to write in the third
person and the passive voice. The purpose of using these techniques is to convey the information
with as few distractions to the reader as possible

Volume I: Appendix C - 3
Incorrect spelling, punctuation and grammar also detract from the content and readability of a
report. The spell check and thesaurus features of word-processing software are helpful, but they
demand that the user recognize the correct spelling of a word, and be able to use it in the correct
context. Spellcheckers are most useful for finding typographic errors. Grammar checkers are also
useful for identifying obvious errors, and lengthy sentences, but they will not turn deficient language
into high quality prose. Often, the checker stops on correct phrases, and checking a long
document can be tedious. However, a grammar checker can also be very helpful, especially if one
is aware of one’s most common writing mistakes, and uses the checker to help find them. An
author must be proficient in vocabulary and grammar to write successfully. There are no short cuts

Readability Indices
Indices have been developed to measure the readability, or ease of comprehension, of a piece of
writing. Most are based on taking a sample of text and determining the number of sentences,
words and syllables. Some indices such as the Fog Index, developed by Robert Gunning, and
Fry’s Readability Graph express the result as the grade level of education needed to understand the
text. A simpler method is to count the number of one-syllable words in a 150 sample that is part of
a coherent passage. The reading grade level is calculated from:
Reading Grade Level (RGL) = 20 - No. of one syllable words
For example, if there are 79 words of one syllable, the RGL is 20 - 7.9, or 12.1

Some grammar checkers will count syllables, words, sentences, and paragraphs, and calculate
averages. This eliminates the tedium of counting, and permits a larger sample of writing to be

Technical writing, by its nature, is more complex than prose, and is usually directed at an educated
audience. A reading grade level of 12 is satisfactory for most technical writing, and should not
exceed 14

An alternative approach is to apply the Clear River Test, which states that all the following criteria
should be satisfied so as not to impede comprehension:
• 25 words or less per sentence
• 12 words or less per punctuated pause
• 75 words or less per paragraph
• 150 syllables or less per 100 words

Readability tests are guides, not rules. Nevertheless, it is useful to check one’s writing
occasionally to avoid obfuscation

Format of Reports
The publisher determines the format of a research report or paper. Many agencies have developed
a standardized format; technical societies and commercial publishers have developed instructions
that must be followed by prospective authors. This is necessary because there are many ways of
dealing with units, references, figures and tables. It is not that some ways are right, and others
wrong. By adopting a standard format (which often involves arbitrary decisions), a report, and
especially a journal which includes work by several authors, is easier to read, and more pleasing
Volume I: Appendix C - 4
and professional in appearance. Most of the suggestions for format contained in this section are
taken from the booklet “Information for Authors and Speakers” prepared by the Transportation
Research Board

Headings should be limited to four levels. Various combinations of indent, boldface, italic and
underlining can be used to distinguish between the levels. The format used by TRB, and in this
manual, is:
Level One: All capitals, boldface
Level Two: Initial capitals, boldface
Level Three: Italicised, initial capitals
Level Four: Italicised, initial capitals, run into text and followed by a colon

An alternative approach, made possible by the introduction of printers with scalable fonts, is to use
four sizes of boldface type

Spelling, Grammar and Symbols
Spelling, grammar, and symbols should be in accordance with standard reference texts. TRB uses
Webster’s Third International Dictionary and the Chicago Manual of Style as the basic reference
documents. Authors should avoid jargon, acronyms, use of personal pronouns, and sexist
language in manuscripts. Occasionally it is not possible to avoid abbreviations and acronyms. In
such cases the first time the acronym is used in the text, it must be spelled out, followed by
abbreviation in parentheses

The word “percent” should be spelled out in text, though the symbol “%” is permissible in tables

Similarly “number” should be used in text, but “No.” in tables. The symbol “#” should not be used
because it has a number of meanings

Measurements are provided in either SI units only, or in both SI and U.S. customary units. SI units
should be in accordance with ‘Standard Practice for Use of the International System of Units (SI)’
published by ASTM as E380-91

When using both SI and customary units in text, the SI units appear first, followed by the
customary units in parentheses. In figures and tables, only SI units should be given, with
conversions shown in a footnote. Alternatively, in figures, customary units may be shown on the
top and right axes of data plots, in which case a footnote is unnecessary

Care is needed to ensure that the conversion is dimensionally correct. For example, it must be
established whether weight in pounds is actually mass, in which case it is converted to kilograms,
or force, in which case it is converted to Newtons. Units that are a function of the conditions of
measurement can cause difficulties. For example, there is a peel test for measuring the adhesion
between rubber and steel, in which the results are expressed in lb/in. However, the test specimen
is 1 in. wide. Converting lb/in to N/mm has no relevance unless it is made clear that the value is
based on specimens 25mm wide. There are similar difficulties with dimensionless indices. For
example, the fineness modulus of sand is derived from measurements made on a specific series of
sieve sizes. If the nearest equivalent metric sieve sizes are used, the index changes. Another
common error is in not distinguishing between ambient temperatures and temperature differences

Volume I: Appendix C - 5
An ambient temperature of 5°C is equivalent to 41°F, but a change in temperature of 5°C is
equivalent to a change of 9°F

There are a number of ways of citing references in the text and compiling the list of references. In
the natural sciences, it is common to cite references by identifying the name of the senior author
and year of publication in parentheses at the appropriate place in the text, e.g. (Smith, 1991). The
list of references is sorted first alphabetically and second chronologically. The advantage of this
method is that references can easily be added or deleted without having to renumber all the other
references. The disadvantage is that it becomes awkward when an author has two publications in
the same year, e.g. (Smith, 1991a), (Smith, 1991b) and especially if two different authors by the
name of Smith publish articles in the same year. Neither does this system work well if several
articles are cited at the same place in the text

In the applied sciences, it is more common to cite references in the text numbered in the order in
which they are first cited, e.g. (2), and ordered numerically in the list of references. If a reference is
cited more than once, repeat the number first assigned to the reference. Do not repeat the
reference in the list or use ibid., idem., op.cit., or loc.cit. to indicate a repeated reference

Reference should not be made to unpublished material, personal communications, or similar
material not available to readers from either a library or the originating agency. Instead, if it is
necessary to cite unpublished work, state in the text within parentheses the author’s name along
with the term ‘unpublished data’

The format for references is somewhat arbitrary, especially with respect to punctuation. It is
important that references are complete. Include the names of all authors or editors; title of article,
chapter, book or report; publisher or issuing agency; location of publisher and year of publication;
volume and issue or report number; and page numbers. If the publication has no date, use
“undated”. References to manuals, specifications, or standards should quote to the edition being
cited. The following are examples of references listed according to the format prescribed by TRB

Haas, R. and W. R. Hudson, Pavement Management Systems, McGraw-Hill, New York,

Chapter in a book
Silverstein, L. G., “Safe Handling of Epoxy Resin Systems”, in Epoxy Resin Technology,
P. E. Bruins, ed., Interscience Publishers, New York, 1968, pp 123-129

Goodspeed, C. H., S. Vanikar and R. Cook, “High-Performance Concrete Defined for
Highway Structures”, Concrete International, American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI., Vol
18, No 2, 1996, pp 62-67

Rhodes, J. R., J. A. Stout, R. D. Sieberg and J. S. Schindler, In-Sit Determination of the
Chloride Content of Portland Cement Concrete Bridge Decks, Report No. FHA/RD-80/030,
Federal Highway Administration, Washington DC, 1980, 58pp

Conference Proceedings
Volume I: Appendix C - 6
McCullough, B. F. and S. B. Seeds, “Field Validation of an Overlay Design Procedure to
Prevent Reflection Cracking”, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on the
Structural Design of Asphalt Pavements, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI and Delft
University of Technology, Netherlands, Vol 1, 1982, pp780-791

Newspaper Article
Ringle, K., “DC Stoplights: Halt, Lame and a Pain to Maintain”, The Washington Post,
March 27, 1983, pA1

Retyping references to a specified format can be time-consuming and difficult to do without errors

Where possible, references should be entered in an electronic file, in the prescribed format, at the
time the literature search is undertaken. In reports that include a large number of references, it is
easy to make a mistake in the numerical order in the text. This can happen by not recognizing a
repeated reference, or missing a reference that is included in a figure caption, but not the text for
example. In large reports it is advisable to use a numbering system corresponding to the
references in the electronic file throughout all the drafts, and not arrange them in numerical order
until all other changes have been made in the text of the final draft

Use of Numbers
The following rules apply:
• Always spell out numbers at the beginning of a sentence

• Within a sentence, use only Arabic numerals with units of measure (e.g. 5mm)

Otherwise spell out numbers less than 10 (e.g. “... five bridges were inspected”) and
use Arabic numerals for the number 10 and greater

• Use Arabic numerals for all decimals (e.g. 5.7). For numbers less than one, use a
zero to the left of the decimal point (e.g. 0.06)

Equations used to present serious difficulties when manuscripts were prepared on a typewriter, but
the problems have largely disappeared with the use of word processing software. Equations should
be expressed in accordance with mathematical practice. Each equation should be numbered in the
sequence it appears, using Arabic numerals in parentheses, placed flush right. When referring to
the equation in the text, use the abbreviation “Eq” followed by the number in parentheses, e.g

“Using the relationship given in Eq. (2)...”

Tables are very useful for summarizing data or text. They should be used to supplement, not
duplicate, the text. Tables should be numbered consecutively in the order first cited in the text,
using Arabic numerals. Reference must be made to each table by number at the appropriate place
in the text

Captions are placed at the top of each table. The appearance of tables is much improved by
eliminating most of the internal horizontal and vertical lines. Each column requires a heading, with
the units of measurement. An example of a table that is effective in summarizing data, and is
pleasing in appearance, is shown in Table C-1

Volume I: Appendix C - 7
All non-textual material should be referred to as either a figure or table. Do not use terms such as
“exhibit”, “photo”, “plate”, “drawing”, “graph”, or “chart”. Line art must be either drawn professionally
or be an original print from a high quality printer. For charts, only the main divisions of the grid lines
should be shown

Most publications require photographs to be black-and-white glossy prints that are sharp with good
contrast. Photocopies of photographs cannot be reproduced. Because of the cost and time
involved in preparing photographs for printing, they should be selected with care, and used only
where a line drawing will not suffice. Where color photographs are an option, they should only be
used when black and white photographs do not illustrate a feature sufficiently well

As with tables, figures should be numbered consecutively and cited in the text. Figure captions are
placed below the figure. If a figure contains several parts (a,b,c etc.) each part of the figure should
be cited in the text and given a caption. It is customary to produce figures that are reduced
photographically to fit the space in the printed copy. Figure C-1 shows how the legibility of the
original is affected by reduction for publication. A good rule of thumb is that after reduction, the
type should be no smaller than 6 points (1.6mm or 1/16in). Lettering, symbols and line weights
should be uniform throughout the figure. Where figures will be reduced, the figure captions should
be included as part of the text, not the figure; otherwise the captions will be a different size from the
remainder of the text, and probably different for each figure

Table C-1: Example of an Effective Table
Volume I: Appendix C - 8
Figure C-1: Effect of 50% Reduction on Type Size and Symbols
Volume I: Appendix C - 9
Examples of Figures
Figures consist of line drawings, graphs, charts or photographs. Their purpose is to help readers
understand the subject matter. They also serve to break up the text, thereby adding interest and
eye appeal. Figures should be self-explanatory, and not require detailed explanation in the text. A
description, and examples, of several common types of figures, follow. The uses, and some
misuses, of graphs are discussed in Chapter Five

Line Drawings
Diagrams or line drawings can be a very effective way to illustrate a piece of equipment, or explain a
procedure or process. Diagrams are not intended to be engineering drawings. The content should
be reduced to its simplest form so that the main features, and the relationships between them, are
apparent to the reader without a lengthy explanation in the text. Diagrams may be pictorial, which
attempt to present the “real” situation, or schematic, which distort the “real” situation for clarity of
presentation, or use symbols as, for example, in diagrams of electrical circuits. Examples of a
pictorial and schematic diagrams are shown in Figures C-2 and C-3 respectively

Graphs and Charts
There is no clear distinction between a graph and chart, though a working definition is that a graph
consists of data presented in coordinate (Cartesian or polar) form, whereas a chart consists of data
presented in any other graphical form (e.g. pie, histograms, or flowcharts)

Figure C-2: Example of Pictorial Diagram Showing Potential Contamination Created by
Exploratory Holes
Volume I: Appendix C - 10
Figure C-3: Example of Schematic Diagram
A run chart is used to record sequential data, such that the vertical axis represents the variable
being measured, and the horizontal axis represents time. It is usual to connect the data points by
a straight line, because the data points represent discrete samples taken at different times. In other
words, the results on a particular day are not affected by the results on any other day, and the
objective is to determine trends over time. An example for the average compressive strength of
concrete on a job site, using the first 12 data sets from Table C-2, is shown in Figure C-4. By
adding control limits to a run chart, a control chart is generated which can be used to control a
manufacturing process. The limits must be calculated from the mean and standard deviation

Frequently, two pairs of control limits are used. The first pair represents the warning or inner limits,
and is usually set so there is a 2.5 percent probability of a sample mean having a value below the
lower limit, and a 2.5 percent probability of its having a value above the upper limit. The action or
outer limits are usually set so that there is a 0.1 percent probability of the sample mean falling
below the lower outer limit, and 0.1 percent probability of it falling above the upper outer limit. Line
graphs are similar to run charts and are usually used to depict trends over time, or the relationship
between two variables over a period of time

Table C-2: Compression Strengths of Concrete Cylinder Sets, Mpa
Volume I: Appendix C - 11
Figure C-4: Example of a Run Chart for the Strength of Concrete Cylinders
Tally Sheets, Bar Graphs and Histograms are used to record the relative frequency of specified
events or results. Suppose we have recorded the 75 sets of concrete cylinder strengths shown in
Table C-2. We can present the results in a tally sheet by dividing the results into class intervals,
usually of equal width, and recording the number of results in each interval as shown in Figure C-5

Figure C-5: Tally Sheet for Strength of Concrete Cylinders
Every fifth time a record occurs, a slash is used instead of a check mark for ease of counting. The
choice of the class intervals is arbitrary. If too many class intervals are used, computation time is
Volume I: Appendix C - 12

WRITING AND FORMAT OF REPORTS Introduction Many agencies recognize two types of report: reports intended for internal use only, and those that will be distributed externally, and …

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What are some simple examples of report writing?

Report writing is a formal style of writing elaborately on a topic. The tone of a report is always formal. The audience it is meant for is always thought out section. For examplereport writing about a school event, report writing about a business case, etc. Today we shall learn about the essential elements of Report Writing.

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Report Writing Format

  • Following are the parts of a report format that is most common.
  • Let us understand each one of them in detail.
  • Executive Summary. You summarize the main points of the report, such as the report topic, the data obtained, the data analysis methods, and recommendations based on the data.
  • Table of Contents. ...
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What is standard report format?

Report Writing Format. Here are the main sections of the standard report writing format: Title Section – This includes the name of the author(s) and the date of report preparation.; Summary – There needs to be a summary of the major points, conclusions, and recommendations. It needs to be short as it is a general overview of the report.

How to write a formal report?

How to write a formal report. 1. Organize the Material: The data should be presented in an orderly fashion. Determining who the readers are there to help you to decide how much information should be included. If the readers are familiar with the problem, its background, and its purpose, you may not have to provide much detail.