Varieties Of Heirloom Seeds And Roots For The 1812

Varieties of heirloom seeds and roots for the 1812

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Varieties of heirloom seeds and roots for
The 1812 Garden
Hamilton College
20010 Season
Sources: (click on the name to access the website of these organizations)
Baker: Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds (Mansfield, Missouri)
Bountiful Gardens, (Willits, California)
Constable Hall (Constableville, NY)
Farmers Museum (Cooperstown, New York)
Miller Nurseries (Canandaigua, NY)
OSV: Old Sturbridge Village (Massachusetts)
Sand Hill Preservation Center (Calamus, Iowa)
Southern Exposure Seed Exchange (Mineral, Virginia)
SSE: Seed Savers Exchange (Decorah, Iowa)
TJC: Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants (Monticello, Virginia)
Jersey Supreme From Clinton Agway (commercial roots)
Iroquois varieties/Native seed: Tonawanda variant #2
(genepool/landrace) and Onondaga Yellow Eye. All from Bryan
Connolly (Mansfield Center, Connecticut CT CO B2 08)(member of Seed
Savers Exchange CT CO B2 08) (planted in Three Sisters plot)
Scarlet-runner “Painted Lady” (Phaseolus coccineus) (transported From
Mexico/South America to Europe and then to Colonial America sometime
before 1750; Traditional English bi-color grown since 1596! The name made
mention to Queen Elizabeth I, "who was heavily made up with rouge and
white chalk." Popularized by the great eighteenth-century English garden
writer, Philip Miller. The gorgeous flowers of red and white are among the
most beautiful of flowering beans. The large beans are also good as snaps,
freshly shelled or as dry beans, which are chocolate and tan mottled in color

Jefferson planted it in 1812; McMahon, the Philadelphia seed seller, wrote
that it was grown in America exclusively as an ornamental; vines can be
trained to grow over trellises. This bi-colored variety of Scarlet-runner Bean,
with showy scarlet and white flowers, is an heirloom of garden origin. This
tropical American species was popularized by 18th-century garden writer,
Philip Miller. Jefferson planted Scarlet-runner vine in 1812 for its beauty
and shade, noting: "Arbor beans white, crimson, scarlet, purple...on long
walk of garden." Sow the large, mottled seeds 1-inch deep in well-prepared
soil after the last frost. Climbs to 20 feet and requires a trellis, arbor, fence,
or beanpoles for support. Beans are edible.) Saved seed (originally from
OSV and TJC)
Jacob’s Cattle Bush (Phaseolus vulgaris) (an old variety once extremely
popular in northern New England in 18th and 19th c., where it was used
primarily as a dried bean) OSV
Mayflower (This is the bean that is said to have come to America with the
Pilgrims in 1620. This old cutshort green bean has great flavor and the
red/white beans are quite tasty. A long-time staple in the Carolinas.) Baker
Early Yellow Six Week bush bean (traditional American
bush bean mentioned in Fearing Burr's 1863 Field and
Garden Vegetables of America as having been in
cultivation for a hundred years or more) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee,
Pennsylvania) (member of Seed Savers Exchange)
BEETS (Beta vulgaris)
Early Blood (dates back to 1825; Jefferson regularly planted Red, Scarlet,
and White beets in the Monticello Kitchen Garden, as well as the coarse
Scarcity Root, or Mangel-Wurzel, in his fields for livestock. Early Blood
was a popular nineteenth century beet noted for its deep blood-red,
remarkably sweet and tender flesh. Sow one-half inch deep in early spring or
three-quarters inch deep in late summer. Prefers even moisture, moderate
temperature, deep garden loam, full sun.) TJC and OSV
Early Wonder Beet 50 days. An old heirloom, pre-1811 variety. Early,
smooth, round beet. Baker
Cylindra (introduced From Denmark in the 1880s) OSV
Chioggia (Bassano) (first introduced to America From Italy in late 1840s)
Golden Beet 55 days. This variety dates back to the 1820s or before. The
beets are a rich, golden-yellow and very sweet. A beautiful beet that won't
bleed like red beets. The greens are also very tasty. Baker
Gooseberries “Pixwell” Miller Nurseries
CABBAGE (Brassica oleracea)
Early Jersey Wakefield (Brassica oleracea capitata cv.) (Introduced From
England in 1840; first grown in the U.S. by Francis Brill of Jersey City, NJ;
became a popular early-season variety in NYC markets; Numerous types of
cabbages were planted in Jefferson's gardens throughout his lifetime,
including French, Milan, Savoy, Ox-heart, Roman, Scotch, Sugarloaf, York,
and Winter. Early Wakefield forms a compact, somewhat conical head with
glaucous-green leaves. It is a fine early heading variety, occupying little
garden space and was popular in nineteenth century markets. Sow one-
quarter inch deep in early spring, indoors or direct. Space six to twelve
inches apart in a rich garden loam. Full sun.) OSV and TJC
Premium Late Flat Dutch (an old Dutch variety brought to Colonial
America; especially popular during the 17th and 18th centuries) OSV
Winnigstadt (a “sugar loaf” shaped cabbage cultivated in the 1800s) OSV
Long Orange Improved (Introduced 1620 by Dutch breeders, brought to
N. America by early settlers) From Southern Exposure Seed Exchange
(Mineral, VA)(member of Seed Savers Exchange)
Danvers Half Long (developed in Massachusetts in 1870) From Farmers’
Museum (Cooperstown, NY)
CORN (MAIZE) (Zea mays)
Iroquois Nation landrace: Gigi Hill (From Bryan Connolly (Mansfield
Center, Connecticut)(member of Seed Savers Exchange CT CO B2 08)
[Bryan Connolly saved seed from the Eastern Native Seed Conservancy
(now defunct)]
[Note: all corn freely cross-pollinates, so only one variety can be grown in
the 1812 Garden in any given year, and it will need to be tented at
pollination time.]
CUCUMBER (heirloom cucumbers are scarce because so many were
susceptible to disease)
Early Green Cluster (introduced in 1778) and Improved Long Green
(introduced in 1842 From Foxfire Farm) From Sand Hill Preservation Center
Ephraim Hall from Heritage harvest Seed
Parade (Cucumis sativus) SSE
FLAX (A commonly grown crop in NYS in the 19th century) Baker
Catawba From Miller Nurseries, (Canandaigua, NY)
Beebalm, “Oswego Tea” (Monarda didyma)
Discovered by white settlers in Oswego Co., NY, in 1743; medicinal herb used by native
In the Fiftieth Anniversary letter of 1872, Hiram Huntington Kellogg, Hamilton College
class of 1822, noted that boneset was a “sovereign remedy for a cold, and was often
found on the shelves of our closets.”
Comfrey From (plant originally from Herkimer Home, Little Falls, NY)
Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Purple Coneflower is native to the
central and southeastern United States and is valued for its showy pink,
daisy-like flowers and its drought tolerance. It was first exported to Europe
in 1699 by John Banister, the Virginia Botanist. Tom Fessendon, an
important nineteenth-century garden writer, said Purple Coneflower was
"very durable . . . and much admired." Identified by The Lewis and Clark
Expedition 1804-1806. collected and shipped back to Philadelphia, it was
distributed to The McMahon Nurseries, The Landreth Nurseries and The
Bartram Nurseries with the understanding that these nurseries would
cultivate the plant material and make it available to the American public.)
Costmary “Bible Leaf” (Tanacetum balsamita)
Goldenrod From Farmers’ Museum (Cooperstown, NY)
Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) (medicinal herb with a long history; 19th-c

households used it in teas to relieve cold symptoms, relieve asthma and lung
complaints) OSV
Lady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris) [exiled from the garden in 2009. This
is a Victorian era addition to the American garden!]
Lamb’s Ear [exiled from the garden in 2009. This is a Victorian era
addition to the American garden!]
Lemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) (cultivated in Europe by 1551; Listed
among Jefferson’s garden herbs in 1794) TJC
Salvia “Blue Hill”
Savory- summer and Winter (Satureia hortensi and Satureia montana)
(used medicinally to treat indigestion, diarrhea and other digestive
Solomon’s Seal
Sorrel (Rumex scutatus)(Highly acidic herb used medicinally)
Southernwood From Farmers’ Museum (Cooperstown, NY)
Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)
Wormwood (Artemesia pontica)
Yucca (Adam’s Needle) (Yucca filamentosa ) The silk grass of early fame in
Virginia. Said to have been introduced to England by Sir Walter Raleigh
Fuggle from Farmers’ Museum (Cooperstown, NY)
Other hops roots of unknown variety (the group second to the left on the
north side of the garden) are quite possibly the wild descendants of the hops
first planted by James Coolidge, who came to Madison Co., NY, from
Massachusetts in 1808 and introduced hops cultivation in NY State. (Roots
obtained from the periphery of the field in Madison where Coolidge planted
hops at the Madison County Hop Festival, Sept. 2009)
“Beaver Valley Purple”- tan roots with purple tinge and stripes, stalk grow
8’ with beautiful yellow flowers in mid-Sept. Orginally from PA WE W
from farming community near Pine Grove, PA; From Kristin Howard and
Erbin Crowell (Cepachet, RI) (member of Seed Savers Exchange RI HO K
09) [this root did not emerge as of 7/7/09; but a local backyard variant is
doing well in the herb garden

LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa)
Paris (Parris) White Cos (first recorded by Jefferson in 1794) TJC
Spotted Aleppo (Speckled Trout) (an 18th-c. romaine lettuce; sold by
Philadelphia seedsman, Bernard McMahon, in 1804) TJC
Brown Dutch (frequently mentioned in Jefferson’s garden at Monticello
between 1809 and 1824; mentioned s early as 1731 by British botanist
Stephen Switzer) TJC
Tennis-ball (grown before 1830; a favorite of Thomas Jefferson at
Monticello) OSV and TJC
ONIONS (Allium cepa cv.)
Red Wethersfield (A 19th century variety, reputedly originated in
Wethersfield, CT)
White Ebenezer
Onion sets from George’s, Clinton
PARSNIPS (Pastinaca sativa)
Student (Appears in American seed catalogues by 1860; Fearing Burr cites
its origin at the Royal Agricultural College in England) OSV
Hollow Crown (variety grown before 1850) Tasty white long roots, sweet
flavor, harvest after frost, a standard in all fall gardens. A popular variety in
the 1820’s with very long roots. Baker
PEAS (Pisum sativum)
Dwarf Gray Sugar (Offered in the New England Farmer Seed Store’s 1836
catalogue) OSV
Ne Plus Ultra garden pea (From 1843; white blossoms; climbs to 5-6 feet;
needs strong trellising) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania)
(member of Seed Savers Exchange)
Carling soup pea (traditional English soup/frying pea;
dates back to the Elizabethan era; strongly associated with the English
holiday Carling Sunday; purple blossoms; climbs to 8 feet; needs strong
trellising) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania) (member of Seed
Savers Exchange)
Cups (pre-1770 variety; collected by William Woys Weaver, author of
Heirloom Vegetable Gardening), From the Beamish Museum in Durham,
England) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania) (member of Seed
Savers Exchange). This variety was offered to the public by The 1812
Garden in the Seed Savers Exchange Yearbook in 2010

Lumpers Medium - large "lumpy-shaped" tubers with white skin and white
flesh. A watery, bland-tasting, but heavy yielding potato variety, the
Lumper, is introduced to Ireland in 1808. Infamous for its vulnerability to
blight which cause the Irish potato famine in the 1840's. W3 claims that this
cultivar is terrific for traditional Irish Boxdy - it is a pre-1800 variety

Widely grown in in UK before 1845. From Curzio Caravati (Kenosha, WI)
(member of Seed Savers Exchange WI CA C 09) Seed acquired by Curzio
in 2008 from J PA WE W

Seneca Horn potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Seneca)(Early, large, blue
crescent shaped tubers. An Iroquois Indian potato from Northern New York
area originally obtained from Chief George Heron, Allegany NY
Reservation, to Doug Egeland (Seed Savers NY EG D), to Ronniger Potato
Farm, Austin, Colorado (CV Ron 93), to Eilif Aas (Vegarshei, Norway and
Oxapampa, Peru) (member of Seed Savers Exchange AA E 09), from whom
we obtained the seed in 2009

Connecticut Field (Cucurbita pepo) (Pre-1700 cultivar of Native
Americans origin. earliest settlers obtained this old variety From Native
Americans; commonly raised in native custom—grown together with Indian
Corn; 100 days. (C. pepo) The heirloom pumpkin of the New England
settlers and Indians, several hundred years old, golden fruit weigh about 20
lbs each. This is a truly old variety, can be used for pies, the traditional
American pumpkin. Pumpkins were grown in Jefferson's fields both for the
Monticello table as well as for feeding the workhorses, cattle, sheep, and
pigs in late summer. Jefferson enjoyed a "potato-pumpkin," which he
described as a substitute for sweet potatoes. In Notes on the State of
Virginia, he recorded their use by the Native Americans. 'Connecticut Field'
is a large, yellow nineteenth century variety with a soft skin. Plant three to
four seeds two inches deep in rich, well prepared hills after last frost. Full
sun.) OSV, Baker and TJC
Long Pie (Cucurbita pepo) (New England heirloom, originated in the
Azores, came to Nantucket on a whaling ship in 1832) OSV
Long Island Cheese (Cucurbita moschata) (Fearing Burr attests the variety
was extensively cultivated in the Middle States at the time of the
Revolutionary War; 105 days. (C. moschata) A longtime favorite on Long
Island, very popular for pies. Flat, lightly ribbed fruit look like a wheel of
cheese, with buff colored skin. A very good keeper, of excellent quality, 6-
10 lbs. each, a beautiful heirloom variety. ) Baker and OSV
RADISHES (Raphanus sativus)
China Rose Winter (a variety planted in mid-summer and harvested in late
fall; One of the oldest types of radish, very hardy, a fall/winter type. Roots
are about 5" long, and a rose color. Introduced in the US about 1850) OSV,
Baker and TJC
Round Black Spanish (probably brought to America by the early colonists;
Large 5" winter type, probably grown since 16th century or before. Deep,
near-black skin and snowy white flesh, will keep all winter in good
conditions. Fine, fairly hot flavor, good raw or cooked) Baker
Common rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum, introduced into Britain in 1573
From Asia) Pale stalks from an old garden in Waterville, NY

American Purple Top (Swedish Turnip) (Brassica napus) (introduced into
US around 1800) OSV
SQUASH (all three of these varieties are attested among the Iroquois)
Canada Crookneck (Cucurbita pepo) (a NYS Native seed) From Bryan
Connolly (Mansfield Center, Connecticut)(member of Seed Savers
Exchange CT CO B2 08) (planted in Three Sisters plot)
Boston Marrow (Cucurbita maxima) (originates From J. M. Ives of Salem,
MA, who received seeds From a friend in 1831. Originally obtained from
Native Americans in NYS) SSE [Crop failure]
White Scallop (Cucurbita pepo) Heritage Harvest Seed
[Note: squash within the same species will cross-pollinate, so if one wants
to seed-save, use only one variety of the C. pepo crooknecks]
Large Red This pre-1830 variety was documented as being grown in
Hancock, Mass., by the Shakers in the 1830s. In 1865 Fearing Burr stated,
“from the time of introduction… the large red was almost the only kind
cultivated, or even commonly known.” Baker
TURNIPS (Brassica rapa)
Purple Top White Globe (developed before 1865) SSE
[Biennial. In order to save seed: Dig up plants before hard frost in fall, trim
tops to 2” and store roots in sawdust or sand in a root cellar. Replant in
Striped French Marigold (Tagetes patula) Curtis' Botanical Magazine is a
popular London periodical that, beginning in 1787, has illustrated the latest
in floral fashions. A handsome form of Striped French Marigold was
illustrated in a 1791 issue. French marigolds are the easiest of flowers to
grow. Sow the seeds in a well prepared, sunny site after the last spring frost
date. The plants will grow to three feet in height and create a dazzling
display until the first frost in the fall. Early records record marigolds being
planted in potato plots OSV and TJC
Sunflower Mammoth (variety grown as early at 1800) From Farmers’
Museum (Cooperstown, NY)
Money Plant (Lunaria annua)
Honesty, or Money Plant, is named for its showiest feature--its two-foot
stalks of silvery, coin-shaped seedpods. It was among the first European
flowers grown in American gardens, and was valued for its seed pods and
edible roots. Seeing the small purple flowers on April 25, 1767, Jefferson
remarked, "Lunaria still in bloom, an indifferent flower."
This biennial is best sown outdoors in summer, where it will bloom the
following spring. When the seed pods are ripe they may be cut and brought
indoors for winter decoration. If some are left in the garden, the plant can
persist for generations by self-sowing

OTHER PLANTS (experimental in 2009 garden)
Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina)
A curious, tendril-bearing annual vine native to the tropical regions of
Africa, Asia, and Australia. Although the pale yellow, deeply veined flowers
of Balsam Apple have a subtle beauty, its round, somewhat warty, bright-
orange fruits, or "apples", are its most distinguishing feature. When ripe, the
fruits burst apart, revealing numerous seeds covered with a brilliant scarlet,
extremely sticky coating. The Balsam Apple was introduced into Europe by
1568 and was used medicinally to treat wounds. In 1810 Thomas Jefferson
planted this vine in his flower borders at Monticello along with Larkspur,
Poppies, and Nutmeg Plant. Sow the seeds about one-half inch deep in
fertile, well-prepared garden soil during late spring. Balsam Apple thrives in
a warm, sunny location and will bloom until frost. TJC
FERTILIZERS added in 2009:
Composted horse manure—from Mark Lewandrowki
Baron Von Humboldt reports Indians of Peru using dried bird dung (guano)
as fertilizer on their crops in 1800-01

FERTILIZERS added in 2010:
Cockadoodle DOO® Super-Premium Organic chicken manure fertilizer

Heirloom Vegetable Gardening), From the Beamish Museum in Durham, England) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania) (member of Seed Savers Exchange). This variety was …

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What are some heirloom vegetable seeds?

Other heirloom vegetable seed varieties becoming increasingly popular include beets, melons, corn, cabbage, kale, lettuces, beans, carrots and herbs. Why Plant Heirloom Seeds? Besides the romantic notion of being connected to the past, and preserving history, are there actual benefits to planting heirloom seeds?

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Give your garden a taste of the past with the most popular Heirloom varieties available. Some of the most sought after heirlooms include: Yellow Pear Tomatoes, Pink Tomatoes, Early Scarlet Globe Radish, Charleston Gray Watermelons, Four Seasons Lettuce, Greek Basil and more.

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