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Varieties of heirloom seeds and roots for The 1812 Garden Hamilton College 20010 SeasonSources: (click on the name to access the website of these organizations)Baker: Baker Creek Heirloom Seeds (Mansfield, Missouri)www.rareseeds.comBountiful Gardens, (Willits, California)http://www.bountifulgardens.org/Aboutus.aspConstable Hall (Constableville, NY)http://www.constablehall.org/Farmers Museum (Cooperstown, New York)http://www.farmersmuseum.org/Miller Nurseries (Canandaigua, NY)http://millernurseries.com/OSV: Old Sturbridge Village (Massachusetts)http://www.osv.org/Sand Hill Preservation Center (Calamus, Iowa)http://www.sandhillpreservation.com/Southern Exposure Seed Exchange (Mineral, Virginia)http://www.southernexposure.com/index.htmlSSE: Seed Savers Exchange (Decorah, Iowa)http://www.seedsavers.orgTJC: Thomas Jefferson Center for Historic Plants (Monticello, Virginia)http://www.monticello.org/chp/ ASPARAGUSJersey Supreme From Clinton Agway (commercial roots)BEANIroquois varieties/Native seed: Tonawanda variant #2(genepool/landrace) and Onondaga Yellow Eye. All from BryanConnolly (Mansfield Center, Connecticut CT CO B2 08)(member of SeedSavers Exchange CT CO B2 08) (planted in Three Sisters plot)Scarlet-runner “Painted Lady” (Phaseolus coccineus) (transported FromMexico/South America to Europe and then to Colonial America sometimebefore 1750; Traditional English bi-color grown since 1596! The name mademention to Queen Elizabeth I, "who was heavily made up with rouge andwhite chalk." Popularized by the great eighteenth-century English gardenwriter, Philip Miller. The gorgeous flowers of red and white are among themost beautiful of flowering beans. The large beans are also good as snaps,freshly shelled or as dry beans, which are chocolate and tan mottled in color
Jefferson planted it in 1812; McMahon, the Philadelphia seed seller, wrotethat it was grown in America exclusively as an ornamental; vines can betrained to grow over trellises. This bi-colored variety of Scarlet-runner Bean,with showy scarlet and white flowers, is an heirloom of garden origin. Thistropical American species was popularized by 18th-century garden writer,Philip Miller. Jefferson planted Scarlet-runner vine in 1812 for its beautyand shade, noting: "Arbor beans white, crimson, scarlet, purple...on longwalk of garden." Sow the large, mottled seeds 1-inch deep in well-preparedsoil after the last frost. Climbs to 20 feet and requires a trellis, arbor, fence,or beanpoles for support. Beans are edible.) Saved seed (originally fromOSV and TJC)Jacob’s Cattle Bush (Phaseolus vulgaris) (an old variety once extremelypopular in northern New England in 18th and 19th c., where it was usedprimarily as a dried bean) OSVMayflower (This is the bean that is said to have come to America with thePilgrims in 1620. This old cutshort green bean has great flavor and thered/white beans are quite tasty. A long-time staple in the Carolinas.) BakerEarly Yellow Six Week bush bean (traditional Americanbush bean mentioned in Fearing Burr's 1863 Field andGarden Vegetables of America as having been incultivation for a hundred years or more) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee,Pennsylvania) (member of Seed Savers Exchange) BEETS (Beta vulgaris)Early Blood (dates back to 1825; Jefferson regularly planted Red, Scarlet,and White beets in the Monticello Kitchen Garden, as well as the coarseScarcity Root, or Mangel-Wurzel, in his fields for livestock. Early Bloodwas a popular nineteenth century beet noted for its deep blood-red,remarkably sweet and tender flesh. Sow one-half inch deep in early spring orthree-quarters inch deep in late summer. Prefers even moisture, moderatetemperature, deep garden loam, full sun.) TJC and OSVEarly Wonder Beet 50 days. An old heirloom, pre-1811 variety. Early,smooth, round beet. BakerCylindra (introduced From Denmark in the 1880s) OSVChioggia (Bassano) (first introduced to America From Italy in late 1840s)OSVGolden Beet 55 days. This variety dates back to the 1820s or before. Thebeets are a rich, golden-yellow and very sweet. A beautiful beet that won'tbleed like red beets. The greens are also very tasty. BakerBERRIESBarberriesGooseberries “Pixwell” Miller NurseriesCABBAGE (Brassica oleracea)Early Jersey Wakefield (Brassica oleracea capitata cv.) (Introduced FromEngland in 1840; first grown in the U.S. by Francis Brill of Jersey City, NJ;became a popular early-season variety in NYC markets; Numerous types ofcabbages were planted in Jefferson's gardens throughout his lifetime,including French, Milan, Savoy, Ox-heart, Roman, Scotch, Sugarloaf, York,and Winter. Early Wakefield forms a compact, somewhat conical head withglaucous-green leaves. It is a fine early heading variety, occupying littlegarden space and was popular in nineteenth century markets. Sow one-quarter inch deep in early spring, indoors or direct. Space six to twelveinches apart in a rich garden loam. Full sun.) OSV and TJCPremium Late Flat Dutch (an old Dutch variety brought to ColonialAmerica; especially popular during the 17th and 18th centuries) OSVWinnigstadt (a “sugar loaf” shaped cabbage cultivated in the 1800s) OSVCARROTS Long Orange Improved (Introduced 1620 by Dutch breeders, brought toN. America by early settlers) From Southern Exposure Seed Exchange(Mineral, VA)(member of Seed Savers Exchange)Danvers Half Long (developed in Massachusetts in 1870) From Farmers’Museum (Cooperstown, NY)CORN (MAIZE) (Zea mays)Iroquois Nation landrace: Gigi Hill (From Bryan Connolly (MansfieldCenter, Connecticut)(member of Seed Savers Exchange CT CO B2 08)[Bryan Connolly saved seed from the Eastern Native Seed Conservancy(now defunct)] [Note: all corn freely cross-pollinates, so only one variety can be grown inthe 1812 Garden in any given year, and it will need to be tented atpollination time.]CUCUMBER (heirloom cucumbers are scarce because so many weresusceptible to disease)Early Green Cluster (introduced in 1778) and Improved Long Green(introduced in 1842 From Foxfire Farm) From Sand Hill Preservation CenterEphraim Hall from Heritage harvest SeedParade (Cucumis sativus) SSEFLAX (A commonly grown crop in NYS in the 19th century) BakerGRAPESCatawba From Miller Nurseries, (Canandaigua, NY)HERBSBeebalm, “Oswego Tea” (Monarda didyma)Discovered by white settlers in Oswego Co., NY, in 1743; medicinal herb used by nativeAmericansBonesetIn the Fiftieth Anniversary letter of 1872, Hiram Huntington Kellogg, Hamilton Collegeclass of 1822, noted that boneset was a “sovereign remedy for a cold, and was oftenfound on the shelves of our closets.”ChivesComfrey From (plant originally from Herkimer Home, Little Falls, NY)Coneflower (Echinacea purpurea) Purple Coneflower is native to thecentral and southeastern United States and is valued for its showy pink,daisy-like flowers and its drought tolerance. It was first exported to Europein 1699 by John Banister, the Virginia Botanist. Tom Fessendon, an important nineteenth-century garden writer, said Purple Coneflower was"very durable . . . and much admired." Identified by The Lewis and ClarkExpedition 1804-1806. collected and shipped back to Philadelphia, it wasdistributed to The McMahon Nurseries, The Landreth Nurseries and TheBartram Nurseries with the understanding that these nurseries wouldcultivate the plant material and make it available to the American public.)Costmary “Bible Leaf” (Tanacetum balsamita)GermanderGoldenrod From Farmers’ Museum (Cooperstown, NY)HorseradishHyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) (medicinal herb with a long history; 19th-c
households used it in teas to relieve cold symptoms, relieve asthma and lungcomplaints) OSVLady's Mantle (Alchemilla vulgaris) [exiled from the garden in 2009. Thisis a Victorian era addition to the American garden!]Lamb’s Ear [exiled from the garden in 2009. This is a Victorian eraaddition to the American garden!]LavenderLemon Balm (Melissa officinalis) (cultivated in Europe by 1551; Listedamong Jefferson’s garden herbs in 1794) TJCMarjoramRosemaryRueSalvia “Blue Hill”Savory- summer and Winter (Satureia hortensi and Satureia montana)(used medicinally to treat indigestion, diarrhea and other digestivecomplaints)Solomon’s SealSorrel (Rumex scutatus)(Highly acidic herb used medicinally)Southernwood From Farmers’ Museum (Cooperstown, NY)Thyme (Thymus vulgaris)Wormwood (Artemesia pontica)YarrowYucca (Adam’s Needle) (Yucca filamentosa ) The silk grass of early fame inVirginia. Said to have been introduced to England by Sir Walter Raleigh(Leighton)HOPSFuggle from Farmers’ Museum (Cooperstown, NY) Other hops roots of unknown variety (the group second to the left on thenorth side of the garden) are quite possibly the wild descendants of the hopsfirst planted by James Coolidge, who came to Madison Co., NY, fromMassachusetts in 1808 and introduced hops cultivation in NY State. (Rootsobtained from the periphery of the field in Madison where Coolidge plantedhops at the Madison County Hop Festival, Sept. 2009)JERUSALEM ARTICHOKE/SUNCHOKE (Helianthus tuberosus)“Beaver Valley Purple”- tan roots with purple tinge and stripes, stalk grow8’ with beautiful yellow flowers in mid-Sept. Orginally from PA WE Wfrom farming community near Pine Grove, PA; From Kristin Howard andErbin Crowell (Cepachet, RI) (member of Seed Savers Exchange RI HO K09) [this root did not emerge as of 7/7/09; but a local backyard variant isdoing well in the herb garden
LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa)Paris (Parris) White Cos (first recorded by Jefferson in 1794) TJCSpotted Aleppo (Speckled Trout) (an 18th-c. romaine lettuce; sold byPhiladelphia seedsman, Bernard McMahon, in 1804) TJCBrown Dutch (frequently mentioned in Jefferson’s garden at Monticellobetween 1809 and 1824; mentioned s early as 1731 by British botanistStephen Switzer) TJCTennis-ball (grown before 1830; a favorite of Thomas Jefferson atMonticello) OSV and TJCONIONS (Allium cepa cv.)Red Wethersfield (A 19th century variety, reputedly originated inWethersfield, CT)White EbenezerOnion sets from George’s, ClintonPARSNIPS (Pastinaca sativa)Student (Appears in American seed catalogues by 1860; Fearing Burr citesits origin at the Royal Agricultural College in England) OSVHollow Crown (variety grown before 1850) Tasty white long roots, sweetflavor, harvest after frost, a standard in all fall gardens. A popular variety inthe 1820’s with very long roots. BakerPEAS (Pisum sativum) Dwarf Gray Sugar (Offered in the New England Farmer Seed Store’s 1836catalogue) OSVNe Plus Ultra garden pea (From 1843; white blossoms; climbs to 5-6 feet;needs strong trellising) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania)(member of Seed Savers Exchange)Carling soup pea (traditional English soup/frying pea;dates back to the Elizabethan era; strongly associated with the Englishholiday Carling Sunday; purple blossoms; climbs to 8 feet; needs strongtrellising) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania) (member of SeedSavers Exchange)POTATOESCups (pre-1770 variety; collected by William Woys Weaver, author ofHeirloom Vegetable Gardening), From the Beamish Museum in Durham,England) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania) (member of SeedSavers Exchange). This variety was offered to the public by The 1812Garden in the Seed Savers Exchange Yearbook in 2010
Lumpers Medium - large "lumpy-shaped" tubers with white skin and whiteflesh. A watery, bland-tasting, but heavy yielding potato variety, theLumper, is introduced to Ireland in 1808. Infamous for its vulnerability toblight which cause the Irish potato famine in the 1840's. W3 claims that thiscultivar is terrific for traditional Irish Boxdy - it is a pre-1800 variety
Widely grown in in UK before 1845. From Curzio Caravati (Kenosha, WI)(member of Seed Savers Exchange WI CA C 09) Seed acquired by Curzioin 2008 from J PA WE W
LumpersSeneca Horn potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Seneca)(Early, large, bluecrescent shaped tubers. An Iroquois Indian potato from Northern New Yorkarea originally obtained from Chief George Heron, Allegany NYReservation, to Doug Egeland (Seed Savers NY EG D), to Ronniger PotatoFarm, Austin, Colorado (CV Ron 93), to Eilif Aas (Vegarshei, Norway andOxapampa, Peru) (member of Seed Savers Exchange AA E 09), from whomwe obtained the seed in 2009
PUMPKINConnecticut Field (Cucurbita pepo) (Pre-1700 cultivar of NativeAmericans origin. earliest settlers obtained this old variety From NativeAmericans; commonly raised in native custom—grown together with IndianCorn; 100 days. (C. pepo) The heirloom pumpkin of the New Englandsettlers and Indians, several hundred years old, golden fruit weigh about 20lbs each. This is a truly old variety, can be used for pies, the traditionalAmerican pumpkin. Pumpkins were grown in Jefferson's fields both for theMonticello table as well as for feeding the workhorses, cattle, sheep, andpigs in late summer. Jefferson enjoyed a "potato-pumpkin," which hedescribed as a substitute for sweet potatoes. In Notes on the State ofVirginia, he recorded their use by the Native Americans. 'Connecticut Field'is a large, yellow nineteenth century variety with a soft skin. Plant three tofour seeds two inches deep in rich, well prepared hills after last frost. Fullsun.) OSV, Baker and TJC Long Pie (Cucurbita pepo) (New England heirloom, originated in theAzores, came to Nantucket on a whaling ship in 1832) OSVLong Island Cheese (Cucurbita moschata) (Fearing Burr attests the varietywas extensively cultivated in the Middle States at the time of theRevolutionary War; 105 days. (C. moschata) A longtime favorite on LongIsland, very popular for pies. Flat, lightly ribbed fruit look like a wheel ofcheese, with buff colored skin. A very good keeper, of excellent quality, 6-10 lbs. each, a beautiful heirloom variety. ) Baker and OSVRADISHES (Raphanus sativus)China Rose Winter (a variety planted in mid-summer and harvested in latefall; One of the oldest types of radish, very hardy, a fall/winter type. Rootsare about 5" long, and a rose color. Introduced in the US about 1850) OSV,Baker and TJCRound Black Spanish (probably brought to America by the early colonists;Large 5" winter type, probably grown since 16th century or before. Deep,near-black skin and snowy white flesh, will keep all winter in goodconditions. Fine, fairly hot flavor, good raw or cooked) BakerRHUBARBCommon rhubarb (Rheum rhaponticum, introduced into Britain in 1573From Asia) Pale stalks from an old garden in Waterville, NY
RUTABAGAAmerican Purple Top (Swedish Turnip) (Brassica napus) (introduced intoUS around 1800) OSVSQUASH (all three of these varieties are attested among the Iroquois)Canada Crookneck (Cucurbita pepo) (a NYS Native seed) From BryanConnolly (Mansfield Center, Connecticut)(member of Seed SaversExchange CT CO B2 08) (planted in Three Sisters plot)Boston Marrow (Cucurbita maxima) (originates From J. M. Ives of Salem,MA, who received seeds From a friend in 1831. Originally obtained fromNative Americans in NYS) SSE [Crop failure]White Scallop (Cucurbita pepo) Heritage Harvest Seed[Note: squash within the same species will cross-pollinate, so if one wantsto seed-save, use only one variety of the C. pepo crooknecks]TOMATO Large Red This pre-1830 variety was documented as being grown inHancock, Mass., by the Shakers in the 1830s. In 1865 Fearing Burr stated,“from the time of introduction… the large red was almost the only kindcultivated, or even commonly known.” BakerTURNIPS (Brassica rapa)Purple Top White Globe (developed before 1865) SSE[Biennial. In order to save seed: Dig up plants before hard frost in fall, trimtops to 2” and store roots in sawdust or sand in a root cellar. Replant inspring.)FLOWERSStriped French Marigold (Tagetes patula) Curtis' Botanical Magazine is apopular London periodical that, beginning in 1787, has illustrated the latestin floral fashions. A handsome form of Striped French Marigold wasillustrated in a 1791 issue. French marigolds are the easiest of flowers togrow. Sow the seeds in a well prepared, sunny site after the last spring frostdate. The plants will grow to three feet in height and create a dazzlingdisplay until the first frost in the fall. Early records record marigolds beingplanted in potato plots OSV and TJCSunflower Mammoth (variety grown as early at 1800) From Farmers’Museum (Cooperstown, NY)Money Plant (Lunaria annua)Honesty, or Money Plant, is named for its showiest feature--its two-footstalks of silvery, coin-shaped seedpods. It was among the first Europeanflowers grown in American gardens, and was valued for its seed pods andedible roots. Seeing the small purple flowers on April 25, 1767, Jeffersonremarked, "Lunaria still in bloom, an indifferent flower."This biennial is best sown outdoors in summer, where it will bloom thefollowing spring. When the seed pods are ripe they may be cut and broughtindoors for winter decoration. If some are left in the garden, the plant canpersist for generations by self-sowing
OTHER PLANTS (experimental in 2009 garden)Balsam Apple (Momordica balsamina)A curious, tendril-bearing annual vine native to the tropical regions ofAfrica, Asia, and Australia. Although the pale yellow, deeply veined flowersof Balsam Apple have a subtle beauty, its round, somewhat warty, bright-orange fruits, or "apples", are its most distinguishing feature. When ripe, thefruits burst apart, revealing numerous seeds covered with a brilliant scarlet, extremely sticky coating. The Balsam Apple was introduced into Europe by1568 and was used medicinally to treat wounds. In 1810 Thomas Jeffersonplanted this vine in his flower borders at Monticello along with Larkspur,Poppies, and Nutmeg Plant. Sow the seeds about one-half inch deep infertile, well-prepared garden soil during late spring. Balsam Apple thrives ina warm, sunny location and will bloom until frost. TJCFERTILIZERS added in 2009:Composted horse manure—from Mark LewandrowkiGuano:Baron Von Humboldt reports Indians of Peru using dried bird dung (guano)as fertilizer on their crops in 1800-01
FERTILIZERS added in 2010:Cockadoodle DOO® Super-Premium Organic chicken manure fertilizer
Heirloom Vegetable Gardening), From the Beamish Museum in Durham, England) From Donald Gilliland (Genesee, Pennsylvania) (member of Seed Savers Exchange). This variety was …
Other heirloom vegetable seed varieties becoming increasingly popular include beets, melons, corn, cabbage, kale, lettuces, beans, carrots and herbs. Why Plant Heirloom Seeds? Besides the romantic notion of being connected to the past, and preserving history, are there actual benefits to planting heirloom seeds?
Give your garden a taste of the past with the most popular Heirloom varieties available. Some of the most sought after heirlooms include: Yellow Pear Tomatoes, Pink Tomatoes, Early Scarlet Globe Radish, Charleston Gray Watermelons, Four Seasons Lettuce, Greek Basil and more.
Heirloom vegetable seeds, heirloom flower seeds and heirloom herb seeds are all non-GMO, allowing gardeners to be actively saving and sharing these high-quality seeds from year to year. They have an extra special quality since they’re passed along through generations.
Some experts claim that to qualify as an heirloom, a seed variety must have been in existence for at least fifty years; some say even older, and use World War Two (which ended nearly eighty years ago) as a marker. Following this rule ensures that actual heirloom seeds are sourced, not newer hybrids.