Sports Nutrition Educational Handouts

Sports nutrition educational handouts

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Sports Nutrition
Educational Handouts
Dr. Kris Clark
Director of Sports Nutrition, Pennsylvania State University
[email protected]
Fast Nutrition Facts
• Training doesn’t stop on the field or in the weight room
o Smart Food Choice is just as important during your training/practice
days as it is before a game. You must always be conscious that you
are “training” your body with the correct food choices

o Benefits of Daily Good Nutrition:
 Decreased time of recovery
 Increased energy
 Decreased loss of muscle tissue in-season
 Increased stamina
 Decreased body fat percentage
 Injury prevention
 Improved health
• Eat CARBS before a workout to increase your energy levels!!
o Toast with jelly
o Gatorade or juice
o High carbohydrate energy bar
o Fruit
o Cereal
• Protein + CARBS = RECOVERY
o Be sure to EAT after a workout
o CARBS – Restore used muscle energy stores
o Protein – Help start repairing muscle damage and grow bigger
• GET SLEEP! In order for your muscles to fully recover, you must get an
adequate amount of sleep. A majority of muscle tissue growth and repair
occurs during a deep sleep

Pre-Exercise Meals:
The Good and the Bad
Why eat prior to exercise? Foods to Reduce Consumption of:
Eating breakfast prior to exercise would Protein and Fat-
replenish muscle and liver glycogen  Both digest slowly and require a
stores from an overnight fast. higher metabolism for digestion
Eating a meal high in carbohydrates and absorption, the additional
raises blood glucose levels. Muscles can metabolic heat generated may
then use blood glucose rather than their impair hot weather performance
own glycogen stores for energy, saving  Too much prevents carbohydrates
the glycogen for exercise. from quick digestion and
When to eat the pre-competition meal: absorption to the muscles
A large meal should be eaten 3-4 hours  A small amount of lean protein in
prior to the event the pre-exercise meal will provide a
 This allows for maximum digestion, small amount of energy to muscle
absorption, and metabolism of the cells, decrease the breakdown of
nutrients. muscle protein, increase protein
 Ensures that the stomach has emptied synthesis in muscle after the
prior to the event. workout, and delay hunger prior to
Foods to increase consumption of: the exercise

Carbohydrates Fiber
 Digest and absorb quickly by the  Too much fiber in a pre-competition
muscles as glucose, sparing muscle meal may lead to gastric distress
glycogen for exercise during the competition/activity
 Carbohydrates are the primary  Fiber decreases the absorption of
source of energy for anaerobic and glucose and delays gastric
prolonged high intensity aerobic emptying
activity.  Avoid raw vegetables and high bran
 It costs the body less energy to digest cereal
carbohydrates than protein or fat – Avoid high fructose based drinks 1
saves your energy for your sport. hour before and during exercise
Fluids  High sugar content may cause gastric
 Hydrate and prevent dehydration distress when not given proper time
from occurring too soon during to be absorbed prior to exercise
 17-20 fl. oz, 2-3 hours before Limit caffeinated beverages:
practice/competition  They may cause gastro-intestinal
 7-10 fl. oz. after the warm-up distress
(10-15 minutes before
Pre-competition meal:
600-1,200 calories of carbohydrates
150-300 grams of carbohydrate
 Complex-carbohydrates that are easy to digest and are low to moderate in fiber

o Low glycemic index carbohydrates may be best in order to avoid a spike
in blood sugar and will then aid in fueling the body for prolonged exercise
 Examples: spaghetti, cereal, wheat, rye or pumpernickel bread,
banana, orange juice, apple, pears, grapefruit, oranges, strawberries,
carrots, peas
2-4 oz. of lean protein: chicken, turkey, egg whites, pork, ham
 Try to avoid nuts, seeds, high-fat cuts of meat, and full-fat dairy prior to a
competition or workout

 Low –fat, carbohydrate and protein containing foods:
o Chickpeas, kidney beans, lentils – eat only a small amount of these due to
high fiber content
o Low–fat dairy products: low–fat cottage cheese, skim milk, yogurt
o Soy products: tofu and soymilk
Post-Exercise Nutrition: Recovery
3 Reasons to eat after exercise:
Refuel for next bout of exercise
Repair Muscles
Who should eat after exercise?
Athletes that benefit MOST from post-exercise nutrition recovery are those who:
o Engage in regular intense exercise
o Play tournament competitions or multiple qualifying round sports
o Involved in competitive events/sports with only 1-2 days for recovery
When to eat after exercise:
IMMEDIATELY: “Window of Opportunity” – First 2 hours post-exercise is when the
rate of CARB storage in muscles is the FASTEST
For MAXIMUM replacement of CARB stores (GLYCOGEN):
o Eat small meals consisting mainly of CARBS and some protein every 2-3 hours until a
maximum of 2,000 Calories has been eaten depending on the level of rigorousness of the
o Eat a large meal high in CARBS within 2 hours of exercise and a CARB and protein–rich
snack a few hours later
What to eat after exercise:
o Replenishing your CARB stores is vital to the recovery process and necessary for optimal
energy levels during future workouts
o YOUR GOAL: EAT within first 15 minutes of ending exercise to initiate
replenishment of CARB stores (glycogen) within the muscles
o Continue to eat/drink 200-300 calories from CARBS every 2 hours after exercise:
giving the body a steady stream of CARBS allows for optimal replacement of used stores
o Moderate to high glycemic index CARBS replace CARB stores the FASTEST
 Potatoes  Pasta
 Carrots  Bananas or Oranges
 Honey  Cereal
 Corn  Rice (white or brown)
 Peas  Bread (white or wheat)
o “Feeding” the muscle with necessary building materials helps stimulate muscle repair
and growth
o Aids in replenishment of glycogen when paired with CARBS post-exercise
o Gulping hydrates better than sipping
o Drink even if you aren’t thirsty
o For every 1lb. lost due to sweat = drink 16 oz. of water
o Fluids with sodium, potassium, and magnesium help SPEED UP rehydration
Glycogen and Carbohydrates
What is it?
• The storage form of carbohydrates for your body
o Stored in muscles and liver
• The major energy source for exercising muscles, especially for high-intensity exercise
How much do we store?
• 1,600-1,800 calories or 400-500 grams in muscles
• 400 calories or 100 grams in liver
When is it made?
• Glycogen is made when there are adequate amounts of carbohydrates in the diet for both immediate
energy use and for storage
What happens when glycogen levels are low?
• When glycogen levels (carbohydrate levels) are low your body must switch to using fat as an energy
source. This usually occurs after 2 hours of exercise

• Exercise performance slows up to 50% because the rate of breakdown and delivery of fat for energy is
6% slower than that of carbohydrates

• At this point an athlete may begin to experience nutrient related fatigue
Pre-exercise carbohydrate needs:
• 150-300 grams (600-1,200 calories) eaten 3-4 hours prior to exercise
• Liquid or solid carbohydrates with little fat or fiber for optimal carbohydrate absorption
• Carbohydrates in food elevate blood glucose levels and “save” glycogen stores from use until activity
Carbohydrate needs during exercise:
• 60 grams (240 calories) per hour of
 Two 20 oz. bottles of
 Sports gels
 Energy bars that are
high in
carbohydrates and low
in protein
• Why do I need them?

o Carbohydrate supplements or
drinks taken during exercise
increase the amount of
carbohydrates in the blood
available to working muscles

This helps to improve mental
and physical performance by
saving muscle glycogen

o Saved glycogen stores = postponing
fatigue. This allows you to perform at
100% capacity from the beginning to the
end of activity

o Fatigue can be postponed up to 30
minutes longer and may improve
performance up to 35% by keeping
carbohydrate levels UP during
• Recovery and replenishing used glycogen is very important, especially if you have multiple competitions
within a short period of time

• The “window of opportunity” for maximum glycogen replacement is the first 2 hours after exercise
o Within the first 15 minutes of exercise eat/drink 50-75 grams Carbohydrate
o Every 2 hours eat/drink 50-75 grams of carbohydrates until reaching 500-700 grams total
• It takes time:
o At optimal carbohydrate levels glycogen stores are replaced at a rate of 5-7% per hour
o Full glycogen replacement can take up to 24 hours. Giving your body a steady stream of
carbohydrates after exercise allows for maximal storage

• A person restores glycogen faster if they are resting rather than active
o Resting during recovery limits the carbohydrate use for immediate energy and increases
the likelihood of your body being able to store the ingested carbohydrates instead

• High glycemic index foods stimulate glycogen replacement at a faster rate
 White or wheat bread/rolls
 Corn flakes
 Potatoes
 Carrots
 Raisins
 Corn
 White rice
 Pasta
Weight Gain Strategies
• Eat more calories
• How many?
• 500-700 more calories than what you are currently eating
 50% carbohydrates
 50% protein
• For Example: PB&J sandwich and a glass of milk or a turkey and cheese
sandwich with a banana and chocolate milk
• Total caloric intake
• Need to increase the amount of calories you eat on heavy activity

• If lean muscle is to be increased, the amount of calories you eat must
exceed the amount of calories burned during exercise
• You must take in enough calories to meet the physical demands of
your day-to-day activities. If not, the body is forced to sacrifice lean
muscle tissue for energy

• Nutrient dense diet:
• Dairy products, vegetables, fruit, beans, meat, and grains must all be a part
of your diet. Eating from only a few of the food groups doesn’t provide
your body with all the nutrients that you need to perform at maximum

• Post-workout snack: Eaten within 2 hours of exercise, it should be both
carbohydrate and protein rich

• The carbohydrate restores used muscle energy stores and the protein will
stimulate muscle repair and growth

• Eat snacks throughout the day:
• Fruit, nuts, or granola

• Bedtime snack- One hour before sleep, have a nutrient dense snack like a
sandwich with milk or juice or a bowl of cereal
• How long until I see results? Muscle growth is a slow process. A half
pound to a pound of muscle growth a week can occur when extra calories
are combined with weight training
Weight Gain Foods
o Milk – high in protein, carbohydrates, Vitamins D, A, and calcium and is an
easy way to take in the extra calories for muscle growth. Chocolate milk is
highest in calories!
o Juice – drink juice with meals instead of water; this will keep calories and
carbohydrates up

o Sandwiches –
o Peanut butter and honey sandwich for a snack
o Add an extra piece of cheese to your turkey or ham sandwich for an
extra 115 calories
o Make it a triple-decker sandwich with an extra slice of bread
o Lean protein –
o chicken, eggs, fish, pork, beans, and red meat

o Salad – pile on the vegetables and protein choices like beans, eggs, ham,
and cheese
o Pasta – rich in energy and when combined with meat sauce the meal would
include three food groups: meat, grain and vegetable

o Apple sauce – Higher in calories than a piece of fruit
o Add a tablespoon of olive oil to your pasta or salads – 120 extra calories!
o Soups – Cream based are higher in calories
o Peanut Butter – 2 Tablespoons = 190 calories!
Weight Loss Strategies
• Eat less calories than what you are expending every day – 1 pound = 3,500
o 500 calories is the most you should cut back daily
o If more than 500 calories are cut, then you could experience low energy
levels during exercise

• Never Skip Meals – Why?
o Lowered energy levels for exercise
o Muscle break down for energy
o May lead to overeating later
• Cut out the fat – Cut any full fat items from your diet and replace with low-fat
food choices to ensure your body uses its current fat stores

• Avoid processed foods and “snack foods” like chips or pretzels
• Do not fry foods in oil or fat. Bake, broil, sauté, or microwave foods instead
• Eat plenty of vegetables throughout the day

• Increase dietary fiber to help satisfy hunger by choosing whole wheat breads,
fruits, and vegetables

• Eat high–quality proteins that are low in fat

o Lean ground meat, chicken, turkey, pork, ham, Canadian bacon, fish,
eggs, skim milk
• Eat smaller food portions: By decreasing the amount you eat at meals by ¼,
you will decrease the number of calories you eat by ¼
• Eat slowly:
o It takes time for your body to sense that it is full
o This will help prevent overeating
• How long until I see results? Only lose 1-2 lbs/week safely. This is to ensure
that you maximize fat loss and minimize muscle loss

1 lb. = 3,500 calories: 500 calories fewer a day for 7 days. Losing weight is a
DAILY awareness of calorie intake vs. expenditure

4 Pre-competition meal: 600-1,200 calories of carbohydrates 150-300 grams of carbohydrate Complex-carbohydrates that are easy to digest and are low to moderate in fiber content. o Low glycemic index carbohydrates may be best in order to avoid a spike in blood sugar and will then aid in fueling the body for prolonged exercise

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